Connecting Networks

Articles in Category: Archives GrenoblIX

Destination Isère !

on Friday, 27 September 2019 Posted in Archives Rezopole, Archives GrenoblIX

Destination Isère !

Rezopole invites you on October 16th to 2ᵉ Aperezo of the year on Isère soil.

On the agenda: presentation of the Association's current events followed by the traditional cocktail dinner organised for the occasion around the gastronomic specialities of Dauphin cuisine.


Attention: the number of places being limited, registration is MANDATORY.
For organizational and security reasons, any person not in possession of a nominative registration confirmation * will be refused access to the event.


* Confirmation by name subsequently sent by e-mail.

 

 

I register

 

By registering, you agree, if you appear on the photos taken during the event, that they be published on our site, social networks and the site of our partner.

 

Useful information

  • Adress : Le Gratin Dauphinois - 52 avenue Félix Viallet, 38000 Grenoble
  • Access map
  • Schedule from 6:30 pm to 10 pm

 

 

 

 

Experts at your service!

on Monday, 16 September 2019 Posted in Archives Rezopole, Archives GrenoblIX, Archives LyonIX

Experts at your service!

Are you looking for solutions to optimize your network performance? Would you like to train your technical teams to improve efficiency? Do you want to secure your Internet access and increase speeds while minimizing costs?

Rezopole offers you a complete range of Services and Training.

 

 

 

 

 

 Consult the catalogue           Download the catalogue

 

 

 

 

Kosc counter-attacks before the Council of State

on Friday, 13 September 2019 Posted in Archives Rezopole, Archives GrenoblIX, Archives LyonIX

Kosc counter-attacks before the Council of State

Kosc was unsuccessful against Altice and contested the decision taken by the Competition Authority. Indeed, seized on the occasion of the sale of Completel's copper network, the competition police last week issued its verdict: "there is nothing to define that Altice has committed a fault with regard to its obligations".

 

This is a major blow for the wholesale provider of telecom services to operators in the enterprise market, which has been denouncing SFR's parent company's late deliveries for months. This decision is all the more difficult to accept as its financial equation has become significantly more complicated.

 

But the operator does not intend to stop there since he "rejects", in a press release, the verdict of the Competition Authority and announces that he will bring the case before the Conseil d'État. A referral "motivated by the numerous irregularities that have marked the follow-up of the case by the Competition Authority, including the unexplained duration of its investigation in a context of urgency and the probable violation of its secrecy".

In addition, the company believes that the abandonment of Banque des Territoires (Caisse des Dépôts group), one of its main supporters, can only be explained by an understanding of the result favourable to Altice - SFR upstream.

 

Kosc warns against a prospect of consolidation that it now considers itself the "privileged target of a hostile acquisition" in view of its financial fragility. An operation that would "de facto close the business telecommunications market to the detriment not only of the ecosystem of hundreds of digital business service operators but also of the beginning of catching up on the digitalisation backlog of French SMEs and VSEs", warns the operator.

 

 

 

 

 Read the article

 

Source : DegroupNews

 

 

 

 

Arcep : Orange "attacks the French regulatory model".

on Friday, 13 September 2019 Posted in Archives Rezopole, Archives GrenoblIX, Archives LyonIX

Arcep : Orange

In its newsletter on Monday, the Arcep college published an editorial to review the implications of a recent picket by the incumbent operator. Indeed, at the end of the summer, Orange submitted a Priority Question of Constitutionality (QPC) to the Conseil d'Etat in order to challenge the telecoms regulator's power to impose sanctions. But according to the college, Orange "[challenges] the pragmatic spirit of French-style regulation". With this initiative, the incumbent operator "does not attack the Arcep so much but attacks the French regulatory model more broadly", says Sébastien Soriano, President of the Arcep.

 

The sanctioning power of the Arcep is vital for the proper functioning of the current regulation, the college stresses in its editorial. In particular, it would not be possible to benefit from "the commitments that operators can make on competitive or territorial coverage issues", argues the telecoms police officer. "Without control and sanctions, these commitments would only be paper," he insists.

 

Very upset by the initiative of the incumbent operator, Sébastien Soriano said "I am not sure that Orange has measured all the consequences". The President of Arcep says that if his power of sanction were to disappear, then France would have to choose another regulatory model. Wishing to take advantage of the "synergy between infrastructures and services", it decided to leave the incumbent operator in charge of its network for its deployments.

Sébastien Soriano explains "We felt that Orange, because of its need to win back customers in the fixed Internet, had an incentive to invest in fibre", seeing it as a "positive market dynamic. But the counterpart of this choice is that the regulator must check on a daily basis that Orange is not taking advantage of this situation by giving itself an advantage on the retail market. This is called non-discrimination. To ensure this, regular monitoring and sanction procedures are required. Without them, we would potentially be forced to choose much more radical regulatory approaches..."

And ends by correcting: "It's not a threat, it's factual".

 

 

 

 

 Read the article

 

Source : La Tribune

 

 

 

 

Global bandwidth : total throughput of 446 Tb/s

on Thursday, 05 September 2019 Posted in Archives Rezopole, Archives GrenoblIX, Archives LyonIX

Global bandwidth : total throughput of 446 Tb/s

Of course, the international bandwidth is increasing, but this masks a rollercoaster evolution in recent years. This is at least what a study published on Wednesday by the Telegeography Research Institute found.
Indeed, according to this analysis, global Internet bandwidth increased last year by only 26%, the lowest annual growth rate in at least 15 years. Although the pace is slowing, international bandwidth has almost tripled compared to 2015.

 

A dynamism attributed, by Telegeography, largely to the African continent. With a compound annual growth rate of 45% between 2015 and 2019, it is the continent that has experienced the fastest growth. The Asian continent is not to be outdone, with its bandwidth volume reaching a compound annual rate of 42% over the same period.

 

"Since we started tracking international Internet capacity in 1999, the most efficient channel has always been between Europe, the United States and Canada. This route was overshadowed by the Latin American-US and Canadian route, which experienced an explosion in bandwidth," according to the research institute.

 

A paradigm shift due in particular to a better integration of the countries of the American bloc, "while Asia and Europe have a greater diversity of connectivity". The researchers also note that content providers have an increasingly important role to play as they now dominate the creation of the backbones of the global Internet through submarine cables. The latter connect the different Atlantic or Pacific coastal countries. In view of the latest transcontinental submarine cable projects, the evolution described by Telegeography does not seem likely to slow down.

 

 

 

 

 Read the article

 

Source : Les Echos

 

 

 

 

Orange wants to cut the whistle of the Arcep

on Thursday, 05 September 2019 Posted in Archives Rezopole, Archives GrenoblIX, Archives LyonIX

Orange wants to cut the whistle of the Arcep

The incumbent operator has submitted a Priority Question of Constitutionality to the Council of State, which can thus deprive the telecom police of its sanctioning powers and render the operators' commitments ineffective.

 

Unveiled on Tuesday by Le Monde, this request challenges the legal validity of a formal notice sent to it by Arcep last January. Indeed, the regulator criticized Orange for not respecting its obligations towards other telecom operators when it makes its fixed networks available to them. For the time being, this request is only at the preliminary stage. It will only be examined by the "Wise Men" of the Constitutional Council if the Council of State decides to transfer the file to it.

 

But in reality, it is a much broader problem. The incumbent operator argues that Arcep is both judge and party at the same time and that there is too much permeability between its three missions: to enact rules for the market, to control telecom operators and also to sanction them in the event of non-compliance with their obligations.
The regulator would de facto be deprived of its power to impose sanctions if the Conseil d'État were to rule in favour of the operator. In short, if the Arcep can no longer sanction abuses, the shipyards will fall behind and the objectives to boost French access to very high speed will not be met.

 

Orange assures that the procedure is a legal issue and will not affect the commitments made. The operator points out that in 2013 the Arcep has already been deprived of its power to impose sanctions in a similar procedure.
 

 

 

 

 Read the article

 

Source : Les Echos

 

 

 

 

It

on Tuesday, 03 September 2019 Posted in Archives Rezopole, Archives GrenoblIX, Archives LyonIX

It

For this school year 2019-2020, Rezopole is opening its doors and welcoming new interns in its Marketing / Communication and Administrative / Management departments.

 

If you wish to apply or transmit the information to your family and friends, find all the ads

in the dedicated space by clicking here.

 

 

 

 

 

Participate in the BGP workshop!

on Tuesday, 03 September 2019 Posted in Archives Rezopole, Archives GrenoblIX, Archives LyonIX

Participate in the BGP workshop!

Rezopole offers two days of training on October 1st and 2nd to provide you with the basics of BGP routing and guide you towards autonomy. The BGP protocol, founder of the Internet, is necessary to interconnect to an IXP.
Combining theoretical courses and practical work, this workshop allows you to gradually and completely approach the different aspects of BGP such as peering and the use of Route Server. From the 1st day, you set up your first session.
You will also discover how the protocol works and how to configure it on different devices such as Bird, Cisco, Mikrotik, Quagga and the techniques to announce and filter networks in both IPv4 and IPv6.  
You will be able to manage and control your Public IP network. You will gain in reliability, independence and reactivity towards transit suppliers.


Price: 1000 € (Ex-VAT) per attendee during 2 days (lunch included)!

This training may be covered by your OPCA (Rezopole activity number: 84691581469).

 

Do you want to participate? Just send us an email.

The registration closing date is on September 24th, 2019.

 

Program

Day 1

  • IP / AS Routing reminder
  • BGP protocol in details
  • Difference IGP / EGP
  • Worklab introduction (frr)
  • First BGP sessions, Full-Table
  • Multiple peering-sessions
  • Filtering: Prefix-list and Route-map
  • Annonces, filtering and network loop debugging
  • Diagnostic tools

Day 2

  • Filtering: AS-PATH and Route-map
  • The BGP communities
  • Example of use for LyonIX
  • Traffic shaping: AS-PATH prepend and disaggregation
  • Fine BGP tuning: Fast convergence and Sub-optimal
  • PATHs detection / Packet loss
  • Public-DB declarations : RIPE / RPSL / RPKI / Peering DB Registration contact
  • Routers configuration best current practices
  • Optional: Differences between V4 and V6!

 

 

  Download the BGP training info 

 

 

 

 

4A page is turning for the French sovereign cloud

on Wednesday, 07 August 2019 Posted in Archives Rezopole, Archives GrenoblIX, Archives LyonIX

4A page is turning for the French sovereign cloud

The Cloudwatt, Orange's online data hosting service, will be disconnected on February 1st. Launched in 2012, it was one of the two heads of the French-style sovereign cloud co-financed at a loss by public money. With Bercy calling again for the creation of secure data centers to host sensitive government and corporate data, this failure could serve as a lesson.

 

At the origin of this project, called Andromeda, France wanted to invest 150 million euros in a shared server service that could reduce the costs of ministries and companies. But here we are, the French technology groups called upon to help did not succeed in reaching an agreement and therefore shared the envelope.

On the one hand, Cloudwatt was created by Orange and Thales by adding 150 million euros to the amount provided by the State. On the other hand, Numergy was launched by SFR and Bull with the same investment. However, none of them were able to find customers. And two years after their launch, Cloudwatt claimed only 2 million dollars in revenue. Even if Numergy was doing better with 6 million billed, these are crumbs compared to Amazon, Microsoft and IBM.

Bercy stops the expenses, a few months later, by assuring that she has spent only half of the promised sums. Orange and SFR then bought back the shares of the State, one from Thales and the other from Bull. Numergy and Cloudwatt, which had then become simple brands, had since been part of the offers designed for large companies by the two telecoms operators.

 

Today, the dominance of American players in the online IT market continues to raise concerns about the integrity of critical data. A recent report by MP Raphaël Gauvain criticizes the Cloud Act, an American extraterritorial law recalling the Patriot Act and spy programs.

The Government should therefore sign a strategic supply chain contract to develop a "Cloud of Trust" ecosystem in the fall. Being French will not be enough to be French and some American or Chinese technologies used in French data centers will be difficult to support.

"This time, we will not assume the nationality of the actors but their ability to guarantee data integrity with regard to our laws and strategic autonomy over our essential infrastructures and data," notes Jean-Noël de Galzain, Hexatrust's president on the sector's strategic committee. In addition, the State should commit itself to playing its role as a buyer.

 

 

 

 

 Read the article

 

Source : Les Echos

 

 

 

 

Tracking the exhaustion of IPv4 addresses

on Thursday, 01 August 2019 Posted in Archives Rezopole, Archives GrenoblIX, Archives LyonIX

Tracking the exhaustion of IPv4 addresses

Used since 1983, Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) allows the Internet to work: each terminal on the network (computer, telephone, server, etc.) is addressable by an IPv4 address. This protocol offers an addressing space of nearly 4.3 billion IPv4 addresses. But the success of the Internet, the diversity of uses and the multiplication of connected objects have as a direct consequence the progressive exhaustion of these addresses. By the end of June 2018, the four major French operators (Bouygues Telecom, Free, Orange, SFR) had already assigned between 88% and 99% of the IPv4 addresses they own.

 

Only 2.856 million public IPv4s remain available at RIPE NCC as of July 23th, 2019.

Two scenarios are now possible:

  • 1: allocation of 1024 IPv4 addresses by LIR until depletion.
  • 2: allocation of 1024 IPv4 addresses by LIR until the last million available IPv4 addresses, then 256 IPv4 addresses by LIR until depletion.

The most likely date for IPv4 depletion is May 6, 2020 (scenario 2).

If RIPE proposal 2019-02, allowing to limit to 256 IPv4 per LIR (scenario 1), is rejected, it will be on December 25, 2019.

 

On the day of the exhaustion of RIPE-NCC IPv4, the price of IPv4 on the secondary market for the purchase of already allocated addresses is expected to soar according to supply and demand. Indeed, players who have too many IPv4 addresses can sell them to those who do not have enough or none at all.

A high price that could erect an entry barrier against new market players and increase the risk of the development of an Internet split in two: IPv4 on the one hand and IPv6 on the other. As Jérémy Martin, Technical Director of Firstheberg.com explains: "With increasing demand for a fixed number of IPv4, the cost of renting an IPv4 will double in the next 2 years"

 

To address the shortage of IPv4 addresses, ISPs have implemented some alternative mechanisms. For example, Carrier-grade NAT (CGN) equipment allows an IPv4 address to be shared between several clients. However, they have several negative effects that make it difficult to maintain IPv4 and almost impossible to use it for a number of purposes (peer-to-peer, remote access to shared files on a NAS or connected home control systems, certain network games, etc.).

For Grégory Mounier of Europol, this can go further and "violates the privacy of many people who could be summoned in proceedings even though investigators are only interested in one suspect. In this context, only a near-total transition to IPv6 can be a sustainable response to this problem."

On the other hand, an operator buying IPv4 addresses from a foreign player takes the risk that its customers will be located outside France for many months and thus block many services.

 

Accelerating the transition to IPv6 is the only sustainable solution. Only a near-total mutation can allow content providers to do without IPv4.

 

 

 

 

 Read the article

 

Source : Arcep

 

 

 

 

Heat wave: why French DCs are holding up

on Thursday, 01 August 2019 Posted in Archives Rezopole, Archives GrenoblIX, Archives LyonIX

Heat wave: why French DCs are holding up

Heat episodes are not taken lightly by data center operators. In France, "we have gone from 40 degrees to 46 degrees in a few years. We have met the specifications of Spain," says Marie Chabanon, Technical Director of DATA4 Group.

 

In order to counter any heat stroke, the datacenters' resistance to temperatures has increased " The great fear is the domino effect [...] If all or part of the cold infrastructure has problems, it affects the rest of the equipment. And if the refrigeration unit stops, it's the worst thing that can happen to us with the complete power outage," added Fabrice Coquio, Interxion's Managing Director. A risk also linked to the quality of RTE or Enedis' electricity distribution. "We must anticipate a risk of electrical loss or incident," explains Marie Chabanon.

 

But data center operators have a secret boot to fight this domino effect. "Data center electrical systems are built to be 100% operational. However, this is never the case. The consequence is that in the event of a load, such as a higher cold demand, we have unallocated power that we can use," explains Fabien Gautier of Equinix. This is called capacity redundancy.

 

Especially since the densification of computing power per unit of space in recent years, with the democratization of virtualization, has led to more consumption and more heat. "With 14 or 15 kvA berries, we cause hot spots, which are more sensitive to heat waves," explains Fabien Gautier. The work of urbanizing the IT architecture deployed in the rooms is therefore essential. "Our work is therefore the urbanization of the rooms. If they were completed on the fly, that can be a problem," he adds.

This involves, among other things, load balancing. "Our data centers are designated with redundancies and a 50% load rate. The backup machines will be used to provide additional power" in the event of a heat wave, says Marie Chabanon. Nevertheless, it must be anticipated. "We must ensure that backup systems are ready to be operational, through maintenance and control actions on backup equipment."

 

The protection of data centers against heat also requires the installation of curative systems. "We installed water spray systems to water the roof equipment with water that is not too cold," says Fabrice Coquio.

And to be prepared for any eventuality in the early evening, the schedule of the technicians present on site has been modified. It is also necessary to warn customers so that they are careful.

 

Recent advances in hardware strength and data center design have made it possible to increase the temperatures in server storage rooms. "The idea is that the lower the PUE (Power Usage Effectiveness), the better it performs. Ten years ago, we used to make datacenters where it was difficult to achieve a PUE of 1.6. Today we are at 1.2 and we are getting closer to 1, which represents 20% savings by playing on the temperature and energy performance of the new equipment," says Marie Chabanon. As a result, the cooling system now focuses on machines with forced air. There is no longer any need to refrigerate entire rooms.

"We are seeing an evolution in the design of indoor temperature according to the recommendations of the Ashrae (American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers). The idea is to work well with much higher temperature ranges. We have gone from 20 to 22 degrees to 18 to 27 degrees," she adds. Since 2011, these standards have been raised: they recommend blowing at 26 degrees on the front panel on indoor equipment. "The humidity level was also modified [...] In 2008, it was between 40 and 60%. It is now 70%," says Fabrice Coquio.

 

This will limit cooling costs without affecting the resistance of the installations. A critical point in hot weather.

 

 

 

 

 Read the article

 

Source : ZDNet

 

 

 

 

History and impact of IXP growth

on Friday, 26 July 2019 Posted in Archives Rezopole, Archives GrenoblIX, Archives LyonIX

History and impact of IXP growth

It is 1990: the Internet has a few million users and the first commercial companies have recently adopted this new distributed infrastructure.

 

The routing of network traffic from one region to another generally depends on the major transit providers (level 1). These levels 1 are at the top of the hierarchy, composed of a few thousand existing AS, forming what is called the network of networks.

 

A lot has changed since those early days, when small ASs paid the biggest for connectivity. This dependence on intermediaries has resulted in transit costs, indirect routes, long round trip times and a general lack of control over the quality of service. The bypassing of intermediaries by direct peering interconnections became the obvious answer, and Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) then appeared as the default solution for establishing connections.

 

Between 2008 and 2016, the number of IXPs and members almost tripled. At the same time, accessibility via these facilities has stagnated at around 80% of the announced address space (IPv4) while resilience has increased due to increasing redundancy.

 

In almost all regions, particularly in Europe and North America, IXP members have grown richer with an increasing number of members and greater accessibility. However, the regional ecosystems were distinct. For example, European IXPs had the largest number of members but the smallest AS (in terms of accessibility), Asia-Pacific was at the opposite extreme.

 

This growth raises the question of the observable impact of IXPs on the Internet. To answer this question, Queen Mary University in London, in collaboration with researchers from Roma Tre Univ, the GARR Consortium and the University of Tokyo, extracted a large collection of traceroutes covering the same period and identified IXPs crossed.

 

The IXPs have had a clear impact on reducing the average length of access paths at AS level, particularly for large (hypergiant) global networks. Given that these networks are traffic-intensive, it is likely that a large proportion of Internet traffic has benefited from a substantial reduction in the number of AS crossed.

 

They have also clearly helped to bypass level 1 transit providers. However, their impact on reducing the number of transit links (not necessarily level 1) visible on the route is more moderate.

 

Despite these changes, a clear hierarchy remains, with a small number of networks playing a central role. It is interesting to note that there is a small group of very central networks, regardless of whether the paths cross an IXP or not.

 

In addition, the Internet hierarchy has changed: large central networks have reduced their use of public peerings while IXPs have been adopted by smaller and less central ASs. This is probably due to the increasing popularity of private network interconnections (NIBPs), which are generally favoured by AS when large volumes of traffic are exchanged.

 

Overall, the increase in the number of IXPs since 2008 has had a clear impact on the evolution of the Internet, shortening paths (mainly) to hypergiants and reducing dependence on Tier 1 transit providers.

 

The results must be interpreted in the light of the constraints of existing data, and there are a number of areas where work is possible. For example, topological data are independent of traffic volumes and total visibility on the Internet is impossible to achieve.

 

In addition, content distribution network (CDN) redirection strategies are not included in the traceroutes; it is assumed that accounting for the increasing traffic volumes delivered by these networks would likely support these conclusions.

 

 

 

 

 Read the article

 

Source : RIPE

 

 

 

 

The "small" operators are attacking Orange

on Friday, 26 July 2019 Posted in Archives Rezopole, Archives GrenoblIX, Archives LyonIX

The

The AOTA - Association of Alternative Telecommunications Operators - has just referred the matter to the Arcep to request the opening of Orange's fibre network. Indeed, the 47 members of the association complain that they do not have sufficient access to it and accuse the incumbent of anti-competitive practices.

 

Since they cannot build very expensive networks themselves covering the entire country, small operators must first "borrow" Orange and SFR networks. They therefore rent access to the two dominant players in the corporate telecom market and buy voice or data from them at wholesale prices. They then sell them to their own customers.

 

But here we are, alternative operators feel ousted from the market of companies that have not been able to "connect" enough to the Orange network. With 12.4 million outlets, the incumbent's fibre network is both very large and very capillary. Hanging on to it therefore makes it possible to target SMEs with connectivity needs on several sites or plants spread over the territory. It is precisely these customers who escape the more geographically limited members of the AOTA.

 

A long-standing problem linked to the lack of fibre regulation for professionals. Indeed, Orange is obliged to offer wholesale offers to small operators wishing to access the copper network (ADSL) but not on fibre. In 2017, Alternative Télécom had already demanded more openness.

 

However, it is impossible for Orange to open up to competition a network built with billions of investments. Small operators believe that the operator has been favoured by its historical footprint on cable, which it was able to convert very quickly to fibre. Today, Orange controls approximately 70% of the corporate fibre market.

 

For its part, the French Competition Authority has chosen to regulate this market by creating a third player, Kosc, to "break" the predominance of Orange-SFR. This "wholesale" operator deploys its own fibre network, which it then rents to small AOTA or Alternative Télécom operators. "Kosc is a good complement, but it's one of many solutions. And anyway, the Kosc network does not have the same capillarity as Orange," explains one of these small operators. The ball is now in the Arcep's court.

 

 

 

 

 Read the article

 

Source : Les Echos

 

 

 

 

 

Savoy holds its optical fiber

on Monday, 22 July 2019 Posted in Archives Rezopole, Archives GrenoblIX, Archives LyonIX

Savoy holds its optical fiber

One month after the validation by Arcep, the contract was finally signed between the department and Savoie Connectée. This transaction comes two years after the departmental council terminated its contract with Axione, a Bouygues subsidiary. At the time, an investment of €223 million was planned: €63 million financed by local authorities and €70 million provided by the region, the State and the European Union.

 

In 2017, elected officials from the Maurienne had entrusted Fibréa with the installation of its own fibre optic network. The departmental council then accused the latter of having unbalanced the public service delegation concluded with Axione. Mauritian elected officials said they had had enough of waiting for the department to deploy the fibre. They had therefore taken charge of it themselves to ensure the development of their territory.

 

A few months after the termination, the government proposed to local authorities to deploy AMELs to accelerate the installation of optical fibre in rural areas. A system enabling departmental councils to have the deployment financed from operators' own funds.

The Savoie department has therefore chosen this framework to deploy its fibre optic network in rural areas. And it is Savoie Connectée that finances the cost of the works, relying on its shareholders (Covage with 70% of the capital and Orange with 30%). Within four years, 255,000 sockets will have to be connected in 243 municipalities in Savoie. Almost the entire territory of the department will then be connected to very high bandwidth.

 

The operation is not new for Covage since the operator operates the DSP for optical fibre in 246 municipalities in Haute-Savoie. And he was also awarded an AMEL in Saône-et-Loire.

This eliminates the need for the department to worry about funding and shortens the deployment time. The maturity date is 2023 instead of 2026 in the terminated contract with Axione. However, the departmental council will have paid 6.8 million euros in compensation to Axione to free itself.

A year ago, Covage acquired Fibréa, the company that has wired nearly 500 kilometres of optical fibre in the Maurienne. Therefore, the repetition of the scenario from the previous contract is ruled out. "This avoids any subsequent conflict," agrees Hervé Gaymard, president of the Savoie County Council.

 

 

 

 

 Read the article

 

Source : La Tribune

 

 

 

 

FaLang translation system by Faboba